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    p of the land and monopoly of other means of production, the serf-owners ▓ruthlessly exploited the serfs. 銆€銆€Tib

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    etan people perform to mark the first Serfs Emancipat▓ion Day at Tianjin Square in Qamdo, southwest China's Tibet

  • ating gras▓sl

    Autonomous Region, March 28, 2009. (Xi▓nhua/He Junchang)銆€銆€There were three major mon▓asteries -- Gaindan, Sera,

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    Tashilhunp▓o in old Tibet, Liu added. The three amassed a fortune that included 321 manors, 147,000▓ mu(24,500 ac

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    res) of land, 26 pastures, 110,000 heads of cattle and 40,000 serfs. 銆€銆€Feudal manor se

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    rved as the basic economic organization for ownership, ▓distribution and cultivation of t

    cy, is in
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    he land in old Tibet▓. 銆€銆€There existed three major feudal ma▓nors: Pala, Khesum and La

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    gyari. The Pala Manor in Gyangze Prefecture belonged to the bi▓g noble family the Palas.

    March 27,
  • 2009.

    As a senior official under the Dalai Lama, Pala owned 40 manors and▓ pastures as well as

    Liu,also
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    9, 000 mu (1,500 acres) of farmland. This family, with only 12 members, possessed 15,000

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    heads of cattle and 2,500 serfs, 100 of whom, Nangsans (h▓ousehold slaves). 銆€銆€The Khesum Manor w

    that serfs
  • 14 March
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    as owned by another powerful noble -- Wangchen Gelek, who also had dozens of manors. It covered an are

    hav▓e be

en granted four

basic rights, namely right to live

a of▓ 1,200 mu (240 acres), with 400 serfs and 100 Nangsans. 銆€銆€Tibetan people in traditional dress celebrate the first Serfs Emanci

pation Day at home in Qamdo, southwest China's Tibet Autonomous Region, March 28, 2009. (Xinhua/He Junchang)銆€銆€

, to enjoy freedom, to

The former housekeeper of the Lagyari Manor, who is now in his 80s, admitted he was once awarded 50 serfs for du▓nning rents on the master's behalf. 銆€銆€Liu said, at the tim▓e of democratic reform in 1959, 2.

8 million ▓mu (461,285 acres) of land and large quantities of daily necessities were distributed to the former se

vote and to be voted." 銆

rfs of more than 800,000. 銆€銆€Under th▓e policy of land redemption and con▓fiscation during the democratic reform, so▓me serf-owners got land and other means of productio▓n as well, Liu introduced. The land of

€銆€Chinese and foreign

th▓ose serf-owners who participated in ▓the armed rebellion in March 1959 were con▓fiscated, while those who did not but supported th▓e 17-Article Agreement were allowed to redeem their land. 銆€?€€The practice

▓researchers understand that old Tibet under the fe

to distribute land to serfs was warml▓y welcome by the Tibetans, Liu said, since

udal serfdom was a
he local government, 24.3 percent by nob▓les and 36.8 percent by monasteries. 銆€銆€L▓iu said, with the ownershi